What is construction land surveying?

No matter where you can go in the world, it seems like the construction is in progress. This is because the design is always necessary, whether it’s about building new structures or additions to the present. An important role in any type of construction is building land survey, which may include many different job tasks. These utilize many different skills and tools to determine a variety of factors that will participate before and during the construction of many different structures.

When building roads, bridges and highways, building measurement requires initial use of computers, calculators and other tools to determine the most important factors in the area that will participate in the upcoming construction. On a road built on previously untouched land, for example, a construction inspector will need to decide how the land has to be displaced to build the road in the way it has been planned. Each element of the building area and its surroundings should be considered in relation to the future road, such as trees, water, hills, and more. The inspector must also prepare the people to build the way for work with the addition of drainage systems, sidewalks and other minor parts of the entire project.

The calculations made when making road construction mapping will determine the easiest way for a roadmap crew to get their job done. Global Positioning System (GPS) equipment is one of the premier modern tools that can be used to do this by calculating topography ground and where the equipment will be placed and used for the fastest and easiest work possible. Other tools for trade in building land survey are levels, maps, computers and theodolites, the latter being tools that measure all the different slopes, angles, and deviations in the country that will develop.

The inspector must then be involved in the process of marking actual physical land with a predetermined system of actions and markers, which will usually follow a land survey map. These will be used by the construction crew to build up the structure as it is planned by specifying the places where specific work must be done. Once built, the road, bridge, or other device is sometimes revisited by the construction measurement team for several reasons, including evaluation of the job, determination of the Construction, examination of the possibility of future work, and more.

Building construction mapping involves many of the same aspects of the work, except in connection with construction of buildings, houses and other structures at different types of land. The initial work of Building Engineer resembles those of the road surveyor, and involves determining how the ground is to be manipulated by the construction crew to accommodate the structure. Building land survey also includes all parts of the structure and their integrity including pipes, foundations, floors, columns, walls and more, all of which must follow strict codes. Rather than a survey map, building engineer must utilize a much more complex system to map the construction site for the workers, which must be easily understood by all involved.

Advice for the construction of your commercial premises

At the time of reforming a commercial space, we must pay great attention to the facade, which will constitute the letter of presentation of your products to the public and will generate the first impression of the brand image. Hence the importance of submitting project decisions from outside the premises to a careful analysis.

The exterior of the premises must be designed with the aim of showing a small preview of what is to be found inside the premises and generate an image linked to the brand that serves as the main element of attraction for the public.

The main interest of the merchant is to draw the attention of their potential customers to access their premises, and to achieve this the facade can be a good ally. In many occasions, the facade becomes a good way of exhibiting the products, trying to turn them into an aspiration and an object of the public’s desire. In contrast, in those businesses where you want to sell an image of luxury and exclusivity, a more reserved appearance is transmitted, through the presence of security guards at the entrance, access bell or even the requirement of a prior appointment to be attended.

The exterior will be shaped through the following elements:

The facade and surroundings of the building

The façade is the front of the store, and without realizing it, it has a great influence on the image and attracting customers. This will be the identifying element of your business through its composition, signs, shop windows and materials used in its design.

The facade of the premises varies depending on the location that, in those cases in which it is subject to the Regulations of Protection of Historical Heritage, is an important condition that can set guidelines when designing the external composition of the premises. In this way, depending on whether the store is located in a historical environment or not, we can differentiate two types of facades of commercial premises:

Facade in cataloged building

In this type of buildings, the design of a facade with a more traditional character is imposed, where the design of the facade openings is conditioned by the characteristics of the building in its original state. In this case, there are usually some rules that regulate the design and placement of the sign and the color or materials to be used in the facade.

Contemporary facade

In general, the design of the exterior of the premises in buildings without historical protection, are characterized by their transparency and their visual permeability from the public road, even presenting even glass enclosures in the entire facade gap.

Not only the building in which the location is located is important, but also influence other constraints of the public road such as trees or urban furniture of the environment. These elements can favor an environment that helps the public to escape and enjoy their shopping experience. Other influential elements are the adjoining premises, whose appearance has to be taken into account as it will influence the perception of the environment of your business.

In the event that you settle in a rented space, pay special attention to the conditions of conservation of the exterior and interior of the premises established in the contract, limiting the possibilities of design and adaptation of the same to your new business.

Identification signs:

The sign is the identifying sign of the brand, whose design is determinant in the image that is wanted to transmit globally of the store. There are different possibilities of finishes: painted sign, backlit sign, lettering of loose letters, adhesive sign…

This can be complemented with identifying elements of the pennant type, which is supported by a metallic support perpendicular to the façade, so that it is easily recognizable to pedestrians on public roads.

To be effective, the sign must stand out, to capture the attention of the public and that can be differentiated and recognized from a distance the brand of the commercial premises.


The showcase consists of a glass cloth that separates the interior and exterior of the premises, after which it is usually available an exhibition space of the most representative sales items inside the premises.

In contemporary facades it is increasingly common to find a glass occupying the entire showcase surface, trying to visually eliminate the separation barrier between exterior and interior, favoring public access to the interior.

The showcase is designed with two objectives:

  • Identify the brand and the products that offer.
  • Offer a way of life linked to the articles and the brand that encourages the consumer’s desire to consume.

The way of exhibiting the products must be consistent with their characteristics, requiring large items of larger windows, while small items require a smaller showcase, exposing the height of the view in a way that is comfortable for the public view and inspect the product.

In most cases, the showcase is usually displayed on a platform that raises the exposure of the product from ground level, enhancing the product and placing it at a suitable level for a better perception of it.


The entrance doors must be designed to be accessible and encourage the entrance of the public to the interior. For this, it is recommended that they have a minimum width of 1 meter. These can be collapsible (towards the interior, so that traffic is not hindered on public roads) or sliding (offering a freer space, without affecting the interior).

Sometimes, access to the premises is characterized by the absence of an entrance door, eliminating the physical barrier between the interior and exterior of the premises, facilitating the flow of circulation of the public. In this case, an air curtain guarantees the comfort of the interior environment with respect to the outside temperature.

The location of the entrance is important, since it will mark the starting point of the itinerary that the public makes inside the premises. Therefore, it is a factor to take into account when making the interior distribution, so that the whole premises work properly. Sometimes, the location of the same is marked by the characteristics of the facade of the pre-existing building, being a conditioner that will be essential in the configuration of the rest of the premises.

The different alternatives of exterior design will depend on the characteristics of the location of the premises, but they must always be focused on promoting differentiation with respect to the competition and generating an image that encourages the consumption of the sales product, favoring the development of your business.

Accounting aspects of the valuation of the works in construction


In this sense we are going to raise several questions:

Activation of expenses prior to the start of the work. Let’s suppose that from the moment you have started the construction procedures and obtained the corresponding works license, there are a series of direct expenses attributable to each promotion, among which are the financial expenses and the opening of the loans obtained from the developer. . We also contemplate the possible capitalization of the interest on loans obtained for the purchase of lots, as the case may be, from the moment in which the necessary steps have been taken to start works. Can you capitalize all these expenses, and register it as a higher value of the stock?

Suppose, that the work that has been started is paralyzed by the circumstances of the market, because the company prefers to wait for the market to normalize. In this case, can expenses related to interest and loan opening costs capitalized to date be written off or expensed? Or only those that originate from the paralysis of the works?

What a difference there is, in the case that the work has been paralyzed because the City has denied a work license initially granted, cancellation that has been the subject of a demand by the promoter pending resolution at this time. Could all of the construction costs incurred to date be lost or expensed? Among these expenses, besides interest and other capitalized financial expenses are those of the corresponding works licenses, which probably will not serve the company since it will have to ask for it again. Should a baseline check be done to check what can be considered as an expense?

There are lots on which licenses have been initiated, etc., but construction has been paralyzed. In this case, could the expenses activated to date, which could consist of licenses, projects, interests, financial expenses, etc…

How to handle a bulldozer

An excavator machine consists of two parts: a basis of tractor and shovel. Most devices driver control tractor; only one controls the blade. The best way to learn how to handle a bulldozer is looking to a professional and then practice under their supervision. However, it is essential that you understand how all devices on these machines work before starting.


  1. Turn the key to start the engine of the excavator machine.
  2. Support your foot on the brake when you start driving. Be prepared to stop the machine at any time you need.
  3. Use your left lever for controlling movement of the excavator machine. Press the lever in the direction you want to go the machine.
  4. Press the pedal to slow the bulldozer. This pedal is located beside the brake.
  5. Use the lever to your right to control the blade of the bulldozer.
  6. To level an area, lower the blade until the ground. Then move the machine forward. Collect shovel earth, leaving the smooth area. Raise the blade to deposit land elsewhere.

Tips & Warnings

  • The first time you use a bulldozer, practiced in a small area. Use the mechanisms correctly can take time and experience.
  • Do not try to use a bulldozer on a slope, in a steep area or other such soil.

How to calculate the productivity of an excavator

The methodology for calculating the productivity of a bulldozer came along with the first machines of this type. Essentially, the excavator productivity is measured by the volume of the loose or rocky soils the machine can move in one hour of continuous operation. In other words, the productivity of an excavator is determined by the volume of the earth that can bring in a minute. Calculations of the excavator are simple and can be performed in a simple manner a standard calculator.


  1. It comprises the formula for calculating the productivity of the excavator. The formula is: Q = (60 * q * z * n * kf) / kl, Q is the productivity of the excavator, q is the capacity of each rotor hub in feet cubic, z is the number of cubes in the wheel n is the rotor rotation speed measured in revolutions per minute. kf represents the fill factor of a cube while kl represents the factor soil loosening.
  2. Collects data. Typically, you can get the information capacity of each rotor hub in cubic feet, the number of buckets on the wheel and the rotation speed of the rotor excavator operator, provided by the manufacturer manual. The filling factor of the blade and the soil loosening factor can be determined experimentally. The fill factor, ranging from 0 to 1, determines the degree of utilization of the excavator shovel. For example, if it is half full or three-quarters full. To determine the factor of loosening the soil, which is always greater than 1, calculated to what extent the land density in the soil is greater than the density of the excavated soil. For example, if the ground is loosened by 10 percent, the loosening factor is 1.1.
  3. Use the formula in Step 1 to calculate the productivity of the excavator. For example, if the capacity of each rotor hub is 10 cubic feet (0.28 m³), the wheel has only one bucket, the rotor rotates at a speed of 5 revolutions per minute, and the fill factor and the factor loosening soil is 1, the productivity of the excavator is in: q = (60 * q * z * n * kf) / kl = (60 * 10 * 1 * 5 * 1) / 1 = 3,000 cubic feet per hour (84.95 m³). kf represents the filling factor represents a cube while kl factor soil loosening.

How to calculate the accumulated depreciation of equipment

Accumulated depreciation is the total expenditure of depreciation charges on a piece of equipment since you bought it. Depreciation is the allocation of the cost of the piece of equipment on the number of years you expect to be in service. When you load a depreciation expense to a piece of equipment each year, the amount of expenditure amounts to accumulated depreciation. You can calculate the accumulated depreciation of a piece using the straight – line method, which depreciates in an amount equivalent each year.


  1. Determines the cost of a piece of equipment. For example, it assumes that the cost of a machine was US $ 45,000.
  2. Determines the life useful piece of equipment, which is the number of years you expect to use, and its residual value, which is the expected value at the end of its useful life. In this example, it assumes that the machine will have a lifespan of 10 years and a residual value of US $ 5,000 at the end of these 10 years.
  3. Subtract the residual value of the piece of equipment cost. Then divide your result by life to calculate your annual depreciation expense. In this example, subtraction US $ 5,000 to US $ 45,000 for US $ 40,000. After US $ 40,000 divided by 10 to obtain an annual depreciation expense of US $ 4,000.
  4. Determines a year of the life of the piece of equipment at the end of which you want to determine the accumulated depreciation. In this example, assume you want to find the accumulated depreciation of the machine at the end of the fourth year of its life.
  5. Multiply the year by the annual depreciation expense to calculate the expense of accumulated depreciation of equipment at the end of that year. In this example, multiply 4 US $ 4,000 US $ 16,000 for accumulated at the end of the fourth year of the life of the machine depreciation.

How to be a construction supervisor

The role of construction supervisor is very important and demanding. It depends on this monitor construction processes daily, coordinate the tasks of workers and keep the place of work without problems. It is also vital to maintain the safety of workers, be aware of budgets and meet the deadlines. To be the best possible construction supervisor, it is important that you follow the guidelines and put into practice in every workplace.

  1. Practice the essential safety guidelines. An important task is to keep all workers safe and free from injury. As a result, the supervisor must require workers to use the equipment suitable safety as boots, helmet, glasses or any other item necessary. Also, keep each area clean and free of potential hazards such as obstacles that could trip a worker.
  2. Controls each construction phase and not get distracted. Another part of being an effective construction supervisor is keeping up with deadlines. This means you must have planned each phase, be aware of material costs and keep workers on task. It is also important to address the setbacks when they appear and improvise when necessary.
  3. Keep accurate records for each construction work. This includes registration of all costs of materials, equipment and labor. It also includes keeping records of each phase of the construction process in the event of a lawsuit or other discrepancy occurs later. Doing this should help the construction supervisor to keep on track with finances and provide useful data for future work.
  4. Communicate effectively with all workers and treat them with respect. For construction work runs smoothly and minimize setbacks, it is important that the construction supervisor maintain a fluid communication. The exercise of the right people and establish relationships with workers interpersonal skills is one way to achieve this. Doing so should make workers feel appreciated.
  5. Resolves conflicts that occur. An additional feature of a good construction supervisor is to minimize conflicts. Therefore, you must manage conflicts between workers professionally and fairly as possible.

How a dump truck work

Construction of a dump truck

Although there are several designs different from trucks dump, its basic components more or less the same for all of them remain. The body principal truck dump is usually based on a flatbed truck, with an axis under the cab, anywhere from one to three axes below the dump box. This it usually has a back door that is hinged at the top, so that will automatically open when you are pouring. The discharge mechanism is hydraulically operated in order to avoid compression problems that can sometimes be encountered when using pneumatics. The dump truck engine can be gasoline or diesel, but overall is a large internal combustion engine, regardless of the type of fuel used.

Discharge mechanisms

Hydraulic discharge mechanisms used in dump trucks are generally one of two types. The most common type involves the use of one or more hydraulic pistons to lift the end of the dump box that is closer to the cabin. This makes the dump box full tilt, pouring what is contained within it. The other type of discharge mechanism found in dump trucks comprises a reinforcing panel mounted vertically within the dump box itself, having hydraulic cylinders that hold it in place. Cylinders push it towards the back of the dump box, pushing anything inside her back, where he will be forced out through the hinged rear door. The type of lifting tipping mechanism is more popular among manufacturers because it is simple to produce and maintain mechanism, but some construction companies and other users of dump truck prefer the other mechanism, it does not require additional space to use

Switch on the dump truck

The power for both the dump truck itself, as for the pouring mechanism is provided by the internal combustion engine of the truck. The truck itself is driven in the same way as any other truck powered by gas or diesel, while the pumps that power the hydraulic cylinders are driven by the power take-off (PTO) connected to the drive train. This means that the truck has to be operational before the pouring mechanism can be used. To avoid accidents, the PTO cannot be activated generally, unless the transmission has been placed in the neutral position beforehand.