How to handle a bulldozer

An excavator machine consists of two parts: a basis of tractor and shovel. Most devices driver control tractor; only one controls the blade. The best way to learn how to handle a bulldozer is looking to a professional and then practice under their supervision. However, it is essential that you understand how all devices on these machines work before starting.


  1. Turn the key to start the engine of the excavator machine.
  2. Support your foot on the brake when you start driving. Be prepared to stop the machine at any time you need.
  3. Use your left lever for controlling movement of the excavator machine. Press the lever in the direction you want to go the machine.
  4. Press the pedal to slow the bulldozer. This pedal is located beside the brake.
  5. Use the lever to your right to control the blade of the bulldozer.
  6. To level an area, lower the blade until the ground. Then move the machine forward. Collect shovel earth, leaving the smooth area. Raise the blade to deposit land elsewhere.

Tips & Warnings

  • The first time you use a bulldozer, practiced in a small area. Use the mechanisms correctly can take time and experience.
  • Do not try to use a bulldozer on a slope, in a steep area or other such soil.

How to calculate the productivity of an excavator

The methodology for calculating the productivity of a bulldozer came along with the first machines of this type. Essentially, the excavator productivity is measured by the volume of the loose or rocky soils the machine can move in one hour of continuous operation. In other words, the productivity of an excavator is determined by the volume of the earth that can bring in a minute. Calculations of the excavator are simple and can be performed in a simple manner a standard calculator.


  1. It comprises the formula for calculating the productivity of the excavator. The formula is: Q = (60 * q * z * n * kf) / kl, Q is the productivity of the excavator, q is the capacity of each rotor hub in feet cubic, z is the number of cubes in the wheel n is the rotor rotation speed measured in revolutions per minute. kf represents the fill factor of a cube while kl represents the factor soil loosening.
  2. Collects data. Typically, you can get the information capacity of each rotor hub in cubic feet, the number of buckets on the wheel and the rotation speed of the rotor excavator operator, provided by the manufacturer manual. The filling factor of the blade and the soil loosening factor can be determined experimentally. The fill factor, ranging from 0 to 1, determines the degree of utilization of the excavator shovel. For example, if it is half full or three-quarters full. To determine the factor of loosening the soil, which is always greater than 1, calculated to what extent the land density in the soil is greater than the density of the excavated soil. For example, if the ground is loosened by 10 percent, the loosening factor is 1.1.
  3. Use the formula in Step 1 to calculate the productivity of the excavator. For example, if the capacity of each rotor hub is 10 cubic feet (0.28 m³), the wheel has only one bucket, the rotor rotates at a speed of 5 revolutions per minute, and the fill factor and the factor loosening soil is 1, the productivity of the excavator is in: q = (60 * q * z * n * kf) / kl = (60 * 10 * 1 * 5 * 1) / 1 = 3,000 cubic feet per hour (84.95 m³). kf represents the filling factor represents a cube while kl factor soil loosening.

How to calculate the accumulated depreciation of equipment

Accumulated depreciation is the total expenditure of depreciation charges on a piece of equipment since you bought it. Depreciation is the allocation of the cost of the piece of equipment on the number of years you expect to be in service. When you load a depreciation expense to a piece of equipment each year, the amount of expenditure amounts to accumulated depreciation. You can calculate the accumulated depreciation of a piece using the straight – line method, which depreciates in an amount equivalent each year.


  1. Determines the cost of a piece of equipment. For example, it assumes that the cost of a machine was US $ 45,000.
  2. Determines the life useful piece of equipment, which is the number of years you expect to use, and its residual value, which is the expected value at the end of its useful life. In this example, it assumes that the machine will have a lifespan of 10 years and a residual value of US $ 5,000 at the end of these 10 years.
  3. Subtract the residual value of the piece of equipment cost. Then divide your result by life to calculate your annual depreciation expense. In this example, subtraction US $ 5,000 to US $ 45,000 for US $ 40,000. After US $ 40,000 divided by 10 to obtain an annual depreciation expense of US $ 4,000.
  4. Determines a year of the life of the piece of equipment at the end of which you want to determine the accumulated depreciation. In this example, assume you want to find the accumulated depreciation of the machine at the end of the fourth year of its life.
  5. Multiply the year by the annual depreciation expense to calculate the expense of accumulated depreciation of equipment at the end of that year. In this example, multiply 4 US $ 4,000 US $ 16,000 for accumulated at the end of the fourth year of the life of the machine depreciation.

How to be a construction supervisor

The role of construction supervisor is very important and demanding. It depends on this monitor construction processes daily, coordinate the tasks of workers and keep the place of work without problems. It is also vital to maintain the safety of workers, be aware of budgets and meet the deadlines. To be the best possible construction supervisor, it is important that you follow the guidelines and put into practice in every workplace.

  1. Practice the essential safety guidelines. An important task is to keep all workers safe and free from injury. As a result, the supervisor must require workers to use the equipment suitable safety as boots, helmet, glasses or any other item necessary. Also, keep each area clean and free of potential hazards such as obstacles that could trip a worker.
  2. Controls each construction phase and not get distracted. Another part of being an effective construction supervisor is keeping up with deadlines. This means you must have planned each phase, be aware of material costs and keep workers on task. It is also important to address the setbacks when they appear and improvise when necessary.
  3. Keep accurate records for each construction work. This includes registration of all costs of materials, equipment and labor. It also includes keeping records of each phase of the construction process in the event of a lawsuit or other discrepancy occurs later. Doing this should help the construction supervisor to keep on track with finances and provide useful data for future work.
  4. Communicate effectively with all workers and treat them with respect. For construction work runs smoothly and minimize setbacks, it is important that the construction supervisor maintain a fluid communication. The exercise of the right people and establish relationships with workers interpersonal skills is one way to achieve this. Doing so should make workers feel appreciated.
  5. Resolves conflicts that occur. An additional feature of a good construction supervisor is to minimize conflicts. Therefore, you must manage conflicts between workers professionally and fairly as possible.

How a dump truck work

Construction of a dump truck

Although there are several designs different from trucks dump, its basic components more or less the same for all of them remain. The body principal truck dump is usually based on a flatbed truck, with an axis under the cab, anywhere from one to three axes below the dump box. This it usually has a back door that is hinged at the top, so that will automatically open when you are pouring. The discharge mechanism is hydraulically operated in order to avoid compression problems that can sometimes be encountered when using pneumatics. The dump truck engine can be gasoline or diesel, but overall is a large internal combustion engine, regardless of the type of fuel used.

Discharge mechanisms

Hydraulic discharge mechanisms used in dump trucks are generally one of two types. The most common type involves the use of one or more hydraulic pistons to lift the end of the dump box that is closer to the cabin. This makes the dump box full tilt, pouring what is contained within it. The other type of discharge mechanism found in dump trucks comprises a reinforcing panel mounted vertically within the dump box itself, having hydraulic cylinders that hold it in place. Cylinders push it towards the back of the dump box, pushing anything inside her back, where he will be forced out through the hinged rear door. The type of lifting tipping mechanism is more popular among manufacturers because it is simple to produce and maintain mechanism, but some construction companies and other users of dump truck prefer the other mechanism, it does not require additional space to use

Switch on the dump truck

The power for both the dump truck itself, as for the pouring mechanism is provided by the internal combustion engine of the truck. The truck itself is driven in the same way as any other truck powered by gas or diesel, while the pumps that power the hydraulic cylinders are driven by the power take-off (PTO) connected to the drive train. This means that the truck has to be operational before the pouring mechanism can be used. To avoid accidents, the PTO cannot be activated generally, unless the transmission has been placed in the neutral position beforehand.